Used to estimate the depth of the ocean, the rope was lowered into the water until its lead-stumped end hit the sea floor. Depth was determined by what mark was visible to the leadsman.
Besides having a cool name, the sturdy, lightweight junk is known for being the first ship to feature a rudder mounted on its stern for steering. The Chinese junk ship was among the most powerful and easily navigable ships in the ancient world.
The Viking ship was a strong durable ship that allowed the Norsemen of Scandinavia sail long distances and raid far away kingdoms.
Famous for their mastery of ancient maritime navigation and shipbuilding, the Phoenicians were likely the first to survey the Mediterranean Sea, creating the beginning of the modern field of geography.
The dhow was a vessel used primarily for fishing and trade. It had triangular sails and a unique hull design.
One of the earliest forms of watercraft, the canoe was a simple, small wooden boat with an open top and was primarily used to navigate rivers.
Egyptians built some of the earliest boats ever recorded. The first ones were made from papyrus reeds and propelled by rowing.
Alexander the Great is known as the creator of one of the largest empires in the history of the world.
One of the oldest of all the altitude measuring devices, the astrolabe is an angle-measuring tool. Its name comes from the Greek, “to take a star.”
The cross-staff uses two pieces of wood to measure altitude, or the distance of an object above sea level or the horizon.