“Victoria” (or “Nao Victoria”, as well as “Vittoria”) was a Spanish carrack and the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world.
Vespucci realized the land he was exploring was a separate continent and not part of Asia, as he and many others believed at the time. The continents of North and South America are named after him.
Similar to a cross-staff, the back staff uses the shadow of the sun instead of the direct view of the sun to obtain the altitude.
The earliest barques were noted in Portugal with square sails and oars but by the 18th century, the British Navy used the term bark to cover ships that did not fall in any other categories.
He was the first European explorer to sail around the tip of Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean, and opened opportunities for a new trade route to India.
The Caravel was slightly smaller than the Carrack and was generally used for carrying cargo and fishing. They were faster than most vessels and therefore favored by pirates.
The Carrack or Nao (meaning ship) was developed as a fusion between Mediterranean and Northern European-style ships.
He is credited for discovering the Americas in 1492, although we know today people were there long before him; his real achievement was that he opened the door for more exploration to a New World.
A renowned privateer, he later led the ships bound for Jamestown and explored the Chesapeake Bay.
He led the first circumnavigation of the world, and is considered the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean
Used primarily for trade, the Fluit was adept at sailing in colder climates and had a large cargo hold.
He effectively ended Spanish dominance over the seas and the New World, allowing England to become a global empire.
He explored the southwestern part of the United States, which helped claim the land for Spanish colonization
Francisco Pizarro contributed to the Spanish empire gaining control over South America by conquering the great Inca Empire in Peru
The galleon developed in the early 16th century from ships such as the caravel and the carrack.
He explored much of the North American east coast from North Carolina up to Maine, and was the first European to reach present day New York
He discovered the Hudson River, Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay on his search for a Northwest Passage to China, which allowed trade to expand throughout North America.
Hernán Cortés was the Spanish conquistador responsible for conquering the Aztec Empire and building Mexico City which secured Spain’s position in the New World.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who helped conquer parts of Central and South America, explored the southeastern region of the United States, and is credited as the first European to cross the Mississippi River
Discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence River and explored much of its area; gave Canada and Canadians their name.
British navigator and explorer who explored the Pacific Ocean and several islands in this region. He is credited as the first European to discover the Hawaiian Islands.
She was a French botanist and explorer. She unknowingly became the first woman to sail around the entire globe.
He was a Spanish explorer who became the first governor of Puerto Rico, the first European known to reach the mainland of present day United States, and he gave Florida its name.
He was the first European to discover Brazil, and also established a successful sea route to India and a leader in trade there
Used at sea as early as the mid 1400s, the quadrant was used by sailors to measure the height of Polaris, the Pole star.
Discovered and charted the Ottawa River, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, and founded Quebec; the first French colony in Canada
The Traverse Board was used to record the direction a ship was sailing along with the corresponding speed of the ship for the same four hour period.
Portuguese explorer and navigator who found a direct sea route from Europe to Asia, and was the first European to sail to India by going around Africa.
Explorer and Conquistador who was head of the first South American settlement, and the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean
Sir Walter Raleigh was in charge of creating the Roanoke colony in the name of England. Though unsuccessful, it paved the way for further colonization of the New World.
Zheng He commanded several treasure fleets – Chinese ships that explored and traded across Asia and Africa. His expeditions greatly expanded China’s trade.